Internet platform for studying Xenophobia, Radicalism and Problems of Intercultural communication.


Wither the War? Russia, Ukraine, and the United States

Prof. Stephen Eric Bronner

As the third year of the Russo-Ukraine War continues, Ukraine is increasingly imperiled. Shoved off the front pages by the crises in the Middle East, there is mounting opposition in the United States to extending further aid to Ukraine



Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in France, 2020-2022

Dr. Jean-Yves Camus, Director of the Observatory for Political Radicalism, Researcher at the Institute for International Strategic Studies (IRIS)

The policy of the Government with regard to civil liberties is challenged by those NGOs from the Left who think the ban on associations, whatever their ideology is, infringes on the right of citizens to protest and even challenge the fundamental values of the Constitution, as long as they do not engage in terrorist activities or try to overthrow the State. The recent (May 2023) announcement by Minister Darmanin that he wants to ban all public demonstrations by Far-Right groups, and his attempted crackdown on Far-Left associations whose members clashed with the Police are a real legal challenge for the State and it seems very unlikely that such a general ban can be enforced, both from a legal point of view and from a strictly down-to-earth approach. The level of violence between protesters and the police has also reached a turning point, and all eyes are on the forthcoming Paris Olympic Games of 2024, the security of which must be ensured, given that protesters from the Radical Left, Radical Environmentalist groups and Islamic terrorists are very likely to at least try to disrupt the event or stage attacks on it. Overall, the level of conflict between protesters and the police is very worrying, and the attitude of some individuals within the police force needs to be investigated for excessive use of force, if one wants to rebuild trust between the police and citizens. Another recommendation is to avoid trying to enforce general bans on Radical groups unless they engage in terrorism, as this may lead to those groups becoming more violent and going underground.


Xenophobia and violation of human rights (especially minorities) in Ukraine in 2022

Ukrainian Institute of Politics

The Ukrainian Policy Institute presents a regular report on xenophobia, the situation with human rights and violations of the rights of minorities in Ukraine in the most difficult period of its history, associated primarily with the military operations that have been ongoing on the territory of this country since February 2022.



Marina Peunova

Since the publication of our previous report in 2021, xenophobia and the threat of violent extremism in the United States (U.S.) heightened. Such discriminatory realities as systemic racism, white supremacy, and socioeconomic inequality continue to define the period under review. A polarization between right-wing and left-wing politics and popular sentiments is underway. Opposing ideological camps now clash on most matters, and their views have become significantly more polarized. The war of ideas has been taking place not just in the streets but online, leading to further radicalization and drawing more converts. Propaganda, hate speech, and misinformation continue to fuel further violent extremist and xenophobic acts.


Report of Xenophobia and Radical nationalism in Serbia, 2020-2022

Dr. Pranvera Tika, Panteion University of Social and Political Studies (Athens)

Since 2020, important developments have been recorded in Serbia regarding the extreme right spectrum in general and in connection with the so-called state nationalism promoted by the Serbian government. Far-right ideologies are both mainstream and underground; these include ultra-nationalist, neo-Nazi, Orthodox-Christian identity-related extremist movements. Reports highlight that violence and threats against migrants, as well as attacks motivated by hate and ethnic identity, are part of their activities.


Xenophobia, radical nationalism and manifestations of hatred in 2020-2022: Poland

Dr. Ilya Tarasov

This article deals with the level of xenophobia and radicalization in Polish society in the period 2020-2022. At this time, the world was facing the COVID 19 pandemic, as well as the war on the eastern borders of Poland.



Dr. Bàrbara Molas, Researcher at the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, in The Hague (Netherlands)

This report addresses existing discriminatory legislation, practices, attitudes, and movements in the Canadian context between the years 2020 and 2022. It first presents an assessment of the legislation affecting the interests of minorities in the period under consideration, including discriminatory legislation and legislation aimed at combating hate crimes, in order to evaluate the capacity for the Canadian legislative system to protect ethnic, religious, and gender minorities. It also analyses existing law enforcement practices affecting minorities, such as discriminatory practices and state measures to support minorities. By drawing upon both qualitative and quantitative data, this report presents the current social attitudes towards immigrants and other ethnic and religious minorities, focusing on those which may motivate hatred and may have led to reported hate crimes. Finally, we list and expose the nature of contemporary radical-right and radical Islamist groups in Canada, describing its main ideological trends and goals.



Dr. Anna Castriotta

The present report covers a two-year period (2020-2022) in Italy assessing the level of xenophobia, hate crime and radicalism present in the country. The report is being written based upon the consultation of Italian government and agencies official documentations and archives, as well as relying on the information available from NGOs and charities that in the country, on various grounds, monitor, report and assess the level of xenophobia, radicalism and hate crime that targets the several minorities present on the territory. All the documentation consulted to produce the present report can be find in the attached bibliography at the end of this document.


Xenophobia and Radicalisation in Greece, 2020-2022

Dr. Pranvera Tika

Refugees, asylum seekers and other migrants, as well as Roma and members of LGBTI communities of Greece remain victims of frequent hate speech, at times involving politicians and even state officials. Despite the commendable work of many NGOs in support of migrants in Greece, their possibilities to support migrants have been put at risk by a 2020 Ministerial Decision introducing stricter registration and operation rules for NGOs active in the sectors of international protection, migration and relocation, or the social integration of migrants.

The level of education among Roma remains low compared to other EU countries and to the mainstream Greek population. Drop-out remain high despite a reported slight decrease. Further, in the last two years an increase of incidents against Roma community from the law enforcement officials has been observed.

The abovementioned patterns are aligned with a general turn of Politics since 2019 when the conservative party of New Democracy won the elections. The rhetoric of immigrants coming in Greece portrayed in terms of an invasion has been embedded in the public discourse coupled with changes in geopolitics and Turkey stance toward the refuggees and a change in public attitudes that the country has a lot f migrants. The term ‘’immigrant’’ has absorbed the term ‘’refuggee’’.


Xenophobia, radicalism, hate crimes and migration changes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2020-2022

Dr. Dmitry Stratievsky

This report considers the three-year time period 2020-2022. During this period, two key events occurred in Germany, Europe and the world, effectively alternating in time: the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia's war against Ukraine, which triggered significant processes across Europe, including Germany. Both events have left a significant imprint on the subject of this study. The right-wing populist and right-wing extremist community in Germany was divided in its attitude towards Russia, and in 2020 a new phenomenon, the Coronasceptic movement, emerged in German public life.


Xenophobia and Radical Nationalism in Hungary 2020-2022

Dr. Balša Lubarda

A lot has changed for this world since 2020, as an entire eternity of lockdowns, mandates, expectations and rather unexpected events ensued with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Somewhat paradoxically yet characteristic of any important event in the world history, we learnt that going “back to normal” will never be possible: still, a still ravaging pandemic is very much taking some and throwing other lives in ever increasing poverty.


Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in the UK (2020-22)

Dr. William Allchorn

Recent events in the UK relating to xenophobia, radicalism and radical right extremism suggest that racial and societal tensions are not going away any time soon. At the time of this report’s completion in March of 2023, expressions of polarisation, stigmatisation and racialisation emerged in the UK’s public life that have emboldened xenophobic, radical movements.

First, and during the last weeks of February 2023, UK white supremacists targeted a hotel housing asylum seekers in Knowsley – resulting in a riot between police and local people. Secondly, and in reaction to book reading sessions under the initiative ‘Drag Queen Story Hour’, a wider campaign by UK radical right extremists was sparked in response with many key groups protesting against LGBTQ+ rights outside libraries up and down the UK. Thirdly, a record rise in migrants attempting to cross the channel has led to further mobilisations by radical-right organisations and solo-actors, who see such crossings as part of a broader “invasion”. Both culturally and racially nationalist groups Britain First and Patriotic Alternative have been ratcheting up their rallies outside such centres in response. Meanwhile, in late 2022, one individual actually set fire to asylum accommodation in Dover before taking his own life shortly after.



Semen A. Charny, Ph.D., Institute for Ethnic Politics and Interethnic Relations Studies, Moscow.

In his new article, the author analyzes Russian legislation, law enforcement practice regarding extremism, the level of xenophobia and the activities of radical organizations in 2020-2022.



Dr. Pranvera Tika, Panteion University of Social and Political Studies (Athens)

Bulgaria has been plagued by political gridlock since 2020 when the Southeast European country of nearly 7 million people was rocked by nationwide protests, as public anger over years of corruption boiled over. Much of the ire was directed at longtime leader Boyko Borisov and his center-right Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria (GERB) party. Bulgaria seem more divided than ever, after no event or situation managed to bridge the gap between them over the past two years.


Ukraine, Invasion, and the Future

Stephen Eric Bronner, Co-Director of the International Council for Diplomacy and Dialogue and Board of Governors Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Rutgers University.

Professor S. Bronner expresses his point of view on the conflict between Russia and Ukraine.


Xenophobia and Afrophobia in South Africa

Mrs. Tali Nates, Executive Director, Johannesburg Holocaust & Genocide Centre

27 years after the end of apartheid and the transition to democracy in South Africa, the past still shapes to a large extent the country’s present and future where racism, hate speech, prejudice and abuse of power still effect society. Many countries draw on the memory of the Holocaust and genocide to promote human rights and there is a debate whether memory of past atrocities can have a preventative power.

The Johannesburg Holocaust & Genocide Centre (JHGC), which was officially opened in March 2019, explores the history of genocides in the 20th century including the Herero and Nama Genocide in today’s Namibia in 1904 as well as the Genocide in Armenia in 1915. There is a focus on the case studies of the Holocaust and the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda as well as connections between genocide and crimes against humanity in South Africa as well as contemporary human rights violations such as xenophobia in the country.


The State of Hate in Canada: Background and Prospects

Dr. Adam Muller Professor and Director, Peace and Conflict Studies University of Manitoba

We bring to your attention the report made by Dr. Adam Muller at the Xenophobia and Extremism: Global Challenges and Regional Trends conference in October 2021. Dr. Adam Muller is an Associate Professor in Department of English, Film, and Theatre at the University of Manitoba, where he teaches and researches in the areas of cultural studies, Holocaust and genocide studies, museum studies, and human rights. He is the editor of Concepts of Culture: Art, Politics and Society (2005), and coeditor of Fighting Words and Images: Representing War Across the Disciplines (2012) and The Idea of a Human Rights Museum (2015).


Xenophobia and Radicalism in France (2018-2020)

Dr. Jean-Yves Camus, Director, Observatoire des radicalités politiques

Dr. Jean-Yves CAMUS is a specialist on the French and European Radical Right and was one of the very first scholars to study the former Front national (now Rassemblement national) in the early 1980s. He has also paid early attention to the New Right and Identitarian movement, as well as to the history and ideology of the Catholic Traditionalist movement and Counter-Revolutionary thinking. His report, made for the European Center for the Development of Democracy, on xenophobia and radicalism in France covers 2018-2020. The subject of the study was changes in legislation and law enforcement practice relating to minorities, as well as hate crimes over the specified period of time. Dr. Camus also dwells on the attitude of French society towards minorities. The subject of his research is also the activities of radical organizations.


(Anti)discrimination, ideological extremism and xenophobia in the Netherlands 2018-2020

Vanja Ljujic, Ph.D.

This report of the European Center for Democracy Development made by Dr. Vanja Ljujic, provides an overview of the major manifestations of ideological extremism in the Netherlands, drawing on events from 2018 through 2020. The first part presents key changes in anti-discrimination laws and summarises efforts to limit discrimination by law enforcement agencies (ethnic profiling). The second part offers brief overview of recent survey research on attitudes towards minorities, followed by statistics on discriminatory incidents targeting members of minorities. In the third part the focus shifts to different radical groups and crimes with terrorist intent.


Report of Xenophobia, radical nationalism and expressions of hatred in Poland (2018-20)

Dr. Katarzyna du Vall Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland

The Report prepared for the European Center for the Development of Democracy by Dr. Katarzyna du Vall examines in detail the changes in the legislation and law enforcement practice in Poland regarding minorities and hate crimes for 2018-2022.


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