Civic Nation Unity in Deversity

Pan-European report


In 2016, the problems of migration and terrorism remained in the focus of the European public. In this regard, the question of trust for the government did not lose its relevance. The year was also characterized by active actions of radical parties and groups, whose influence has significantly increased in recent years due to the influx of refugees.

The analysis of xenophobic manifestations and statistics of Hate crime in 2016 indicate that the social crisis caused by the influx of refugees, globalization and the growth of nationalistic sentiments in Europe continues despite the efforts of the authorities of most countries in the region. This crisis threatens to undermine social cohesion. That is also the and direct threat to the democratic values.

The purpose of this study is to analyze both the main manifestations of xenophobia and the activities of radical groups in Europe in 2016, and the forms of government response to these manifestations. The actions of the authorities were a separate subject of study, as they testify how far the state and European structures were ready for new challenges.

The objects of the study are 8 EU countries - UK, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and France, as well as, as already mentioned, two countries that are not members of the EU, but which have a significant impact on the political and economic processes in Europe, namely, Russia and Ukraine.

The preparation of the material involved researchers from various European universities and research centers: Department of History at Northampton University, UK; the Center for the Study of Fascism, Antifascism, and Post-Fascism at Teesside University, UK; the Institute for Strategic Studies of France; Department of Sociology and the Department of Social Research Methodology at Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Budapest; Political Capital Institute, Budapest; Faculty of Social Science at The Pantheon University of Athens; the Berlin Register for documentation of manifestations of right-wing extremism and discrimination in the district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Germany; the Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Netherlands; The history of the Jagiellonian University, Krakow; the Russian Institute for the Study of National Politics and Interethnic Relations, Moscow; the Ukrainian Institute of Analysis and Management.

The study analyzes legislation relating to minority rights, law enforcement practices, statistics and the nature of hate crimes, the level of xenophobia amongst the population, the position of the authorities in relation to modern challenges, and the activity of right-wing and Islamist groups.

Pan-European Report-2017-ed!.pdf (1,5MB)

2015 was a year characterised by an unprecedented migrant crisis, escalated terrorist activity, and increased influence of radical political parties. Growing xenophobic tensions were accompanied by the rise of populist parties on the one hand and the radicalisation of Muslim youths on the other, which played a significant role in the attitude and treatment of refugees and immigrants this year. These trends have been observed against the background of anti-Semitic and Islamophobic sentiments, which have already been high for several years, as well as institutionalised racism in public and law enforcement bodies. Given these observations, it can be said that the European society is not only in the midst of racial and religious stratification, but also faces serious changes related to the transformation of identity and the growing civilizational conflicts.

The conducted study aimed to analyse the most prominent manifestations of hate in European countries in 2015 and to identify factors that affect the demand for radicalism in society. The study also focused on the preparedness and responses of governments to modern challenges. Research was conducted in 8 EU member states (France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom), as well as Russia and Ukraine, as countries who play a significant role in political and economic processes in Europe.

The study involved researchers from various universities and research centres across Europe: Department of History at Northampton University, UK; Teesside University, Centre for Fascist, Anti-Fascist and Post-Fascist Studies, UK; Department Chair of Social Research Methodology at Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Faculty of Social Science; Political Capital Institute in Budapest; Pantheon University of Athens; Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement; Jagiellonian University, Dept. of History, Krakow; Russian Institute of the National Policy and Inter-Ethnic Relations Studies, Moscow; Ukrainian Institute of the Political Analysis and Management; Human Rights Centre “Religion and the Law”, Kiev.

Analysis was conducted in the following areas: legislation affecting minorities, law enforcement practices, treatment of human rights activists, hate crime statistics, xenophobic sentiments in the population, and government responses to modern challenges, such as the refugee crisis and the threat of radical Islamism. These observations form a basis for recommendations, which outline the steps to improve the situation regarding minority rights and de-escalating public tensions.

This report has been produced with the support of the European Centre of Tolerance.

Full report (PDF, 870 Kb)

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