Internet platform for studying Xenophobia, Radicalism and Problems of Intercultural communication.


Xenophobia and Radicalism in Ireland (2017)

Dr. William Allchorn, Associate Director, CARR. Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Leeds. Visiting Lecturer in Politics, Leeds Trinity University.

Dr William Allchorn is a specialist on anti-Islamic protest movements and radical right social movements in the UK and Western Europe. His PhD thesis mapped political, policing and local authority responses to the English Defence League in five UK locations. William is now working on his first research monograph under contract with Routledge – looking at policy responses to the EDL and Britain First over the past decade. His previous published work has looked at the dynamics of activism within anti-Islam movements and counter-extremism responses towards such groups. William has taught undergraduate courses and given lectures on the radical right in Western Europe; both at the social movement and party political level. Previous consultancy has included delivering counter narrative engagement sessions in the North East of England and putting together a ‘Countering Radical Right Narratives’ educational pack due for the Department of Education ‘Educate against Hate’ website. As of January 2017, William Allchorn is the Associate Director of Centre for Analysis of the Radical Rights (CARR). He is also the Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Leeds and Visiting Lecturer in Politics, Leeds Trinity University.

Ireland presents itself as somewhat of a peculiarity when looking at forms of Xenophobia and Radicalism. As this report will discuss, Ireland’s above average support for migrants and lack of an organised or successful radical right political scene marks it out as an anomalous case of moderation tolerance within Western Europe. Moreover, elite discourse towards minorities and migrants tended to be positive on the whole in the period under study (2017). This is not to say, however, that Ireland has not had it struggled with exclusionary practices. As this report highlights, hate crime is still not a specifically enforceable criminal offence and third-party recorded statistics mask the underreporting of these incidences. Moreover, minority representation among law enforcement agencies is remarkably low.

This report will therefore look into the period under study and suggest how far Ireland is an anomalous case - focusing on changes in legislation, the current state of law enforcement practices, rhetoric of government officials, popular attitudes towards migrants (in sport and society) as well as the profile of radical right parties. What will be found is positive adherence to moderation, tolerance and human rights norms on the whole – with some room for improvement in key areas of legislation, law enforcement and underlying popular prejudice against minorities.



Katarzyna du Vall, PhD Candidate Institute of European Studies, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Bearing in mind the attitude of the society towards other nations and denominations, especially Muslims, the ruling party and the public service media should refrain from creating a climate of fear and distrust. Since Muslims – an almost non-existing minority in Poland – appeared to be main victims of hate-motivated crimes, a great effort should be done to stop inciting hared against them.

First of all, an anti-Islamic propaganda in public service media must end. Secondly, hate speech and hate-motivated crime should not be classified as marginal problem by the authorities. A policy of zero-tolerance should be implemented.


Report of Xenophobia and Radical nationalism in Netherlands (2017)

Dr. Vanja Ljujic

The main issue of concern regards the increasing tensions in Dutch society between various minority and majority groups which seem to enhance exclusion and discrimination.


The Problem of Minorities in Austria. Legislation, enforcement, and Radical groups.

Dr. Markus Rheindorf, Vienna University

Dr. Markus Rheindorf is a famous researcher in the field of Xenophobia and Radicalism in modern Austria. You can find here his report in the framework of the Program of the European Center for Democracy for the Study of Xenophiobia and Radicalism in Europe. Since the so-called “refugee crisis” of 2015/2016, Austria has been struggling with a notable increase of generally xenophobic, racist or anti-Muslim sentiments as well as actions. Most of these fall clearly under the extreme-right rubric and many are also categorized as violations of the National Socialism Prohibition Act. However, while there was a turning point in public and political opinion regarding refugees/immigration in late 2015, it is important to realize that this pattern is not a radical break but an intensification or perhaps even resurgence of anti-immigrant attitudes that have a long history in Austria.


Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Croatia (2017)

Dr. Ana Ljubojević, Newfelpro postdoctoral fellow at the Faculty of Political Sciences in Zagreb, Croatia

Dr. Ana Ljubojevic is a Newfelpro postdoctoral fellow at the Faculty of Political Sciences in Zagreb, Croatia. She obtained her PhD in Political Systems and Institutional Change at the Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy. Her thesis examined the impact of war crime trials on historical narratives in Croatia and Serbia.


Xenophobia, Radicalism, and Hate Crime in ITALY, 2016

Dr. Anna Castriota

The author of this publication, Anna Castriota is the Phd candidate in Political History (second doctorate) at University of Northampton, Master in History of Fascism, lecturer in Politics and Terrorism (St Clare's college, Oxford). Anna Castriota is an expert in the field of Italian fascism and radicalism. In her Report, she raises issues related to the Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Italy in 2016.



Dr. Jean-Yves Camus

The Article of Dr. Jean-Yves Camus, famous political analyst and the Associate Research Fellow at the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS). In his article, which was written for the European center of tolerance, Dr. Camus considers various aspects of tolerance problems in France



In September 2017 the 1st Riga Forum took place in Riga (Latvia)

The Riga Forum was a logical continuation of two conferences – the conference „Holocaust museums and memorial sites in post-communist countries: challenges and opportunities” and the second one - to the contemporary problems of tolerance, mainly – the changes in legislation, ethnic minority-related legal defense practices, the activity of radical groups and the statistics of hate crimes in the member states of the OSCE.

The event was organized by the European Tolerance Center, the Association “Shamir”, the Riga Ghetto Museum and the European Center for the Development of Democracy.

The goal of the forum – forming a comprehensive international society of professional experts on the questions of tolerance, xenophobia, radicalism and hate crimes and raising attention of the international community to the problems of tolerance existing in Europe today.

Please find the Digest of the Riga Forum materials in two languages.


Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Hungary (2016)

Ildikó Barna and Bulcsú Hunyadi

This is the detailed Study of the problems of tolerance in Hungary, made by outstanding Hungarian researchers Dr. Ildikó Barna and Mr. Bulcsú Hunyadi. The Study touches upon many aspects of the problem, beginning with changes in legislation relating to minorities and ending with the activities of right-wing radical parties and groups.


Report of Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Netherlands

Dr. Vanja Ljujic

The human rights in Netherlands are sporadically jeopardized, for instance, when xenophobic or radicalized individuals and groups threat dignity (hate speech against Jews, Muslims, immigrants, homosexuals; ethnic profiling; police racism), or physical integrity (xenophobic, or homophobic attacks, attacks on refugee shelters, etc.)



Valery Engel, PhD, President of the European Center for Democracy Development (Latvia)

The problem of Xenophobia and Radicalism remains for a number of years one of the main problems in the so-called "Greater Europe." What has changed over the past year?

Analysis is given on the basis of 8 EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and the United Kingdom), as well as Russia and Ukraine, as countries who play a significant role in political and economic processes in Europe.


What is the basis of European Xenophobic Radicalism?

Valery Engel, PhD, President of the European Center for Democracy Development (Latvia)

It is commonly believed that the main reason is the presence of entrenched xenophobic traditions of the majority and minority, inadequate legislation on minorities and the increase in migration flows from Asia and Africa, which creates the demand for extreme right policies from the indigenous populations. However, migration from Third World countries into Europe has been present since the 1950s.

In addition, radical Islamists very often are originally second or third generation immigrants, born in Europe and fluent in the language of the country they live in. Therefore, it is fair to say that the cause is more fundamental – in their self-determination and the readiness of minorities to respect the traditions of the majority and vice versa. Does this mean that traditions and legislation play the main role in this issue? Not necessarily. There is a whole range of influencing factors, including the type of integration model implemented by a country.


"The Transnational Far Right"

Rob May, PhD Reseacher for Teesside University’s Centre for Fascist, Anti-Fascist and Post-Fascist Studies (CFAPS), UK

The transnational far right is currently flourishing. The unexpected election of the racist, nationalist and isolationist Donald Trump as president of the United States has galvanised far right groups across the world. In Europe, the rise of Trump combined with an increase in Jihadi Islamist terrorism and an influx of refugees escaping Middle Eastern war has led to a resurgence of far right activity. Politically, the far right has become mainstream in many countries, for example France, Germany and Austria, and far right themes (racism, xenophobia, anti-liberalism, nationalism and social conservativism, amongst others) are gaining traction with the European electorates at an alarming rate. Beyond the confines of the nation-state, moreover far right movements are also scoring victories and mobilising activists, as this report will emphasise.


What can we oppose to right-wing radicalism?

Professor of Higher Education and former Member of Parliament (Deutscher Bundestag). Dr. Gert Weisskirchen.



European Center for Democracy Development (Latvia)

This present article aims to analyse the most prominent manifestations of hatred in countries of the so-called “Greater Europe”, i.e. the Council of Europe member-states and countries located within European geographical borders. The primary objective is to identify factors that influence the demand for radicalism and those that contribute to the reduction of radical sentiments in society.


Xenophobia and Radicalism in Russia, 2015

Semen Charny, PhD, Ch. of the Board of the Institute for ethnic Policy and Inter-ethnic Stidies (Russia).

The situation with hate crime in Russia remains twofold. On the one hand, Russia has a sufficiently developed legislation protecting minority rights, combatting xenophobia, etc. Public officials on all levels are actively speaking against xenophobia. The new Federal Agency on Nationalities Affairs is designed to focus on ensuring interethnic harmony in the country. The government continuously provides grants to relevant NPOs. In 2015, a significant decrease in hate crime was observed. This trend is most likely caused by two factors – activity of the law enforcement and the focus of local nationalists on the conflict in Ukraine. On the other hand, there are some issues in law enforcement practices, specifically discrimination of minorities – immigrants, members of “sects” and LGBT.



Valery Engel, Ph.D., Dr.Ilya Tarasov – Russia, Dr. Joachim Wolf – Germany, Dr. Anna Castriota – Italy, Michael Bugakov PhD. – Lithuania, Alexander Kuzmin – Latvia, Dr. Simone Rafael – Germany, Alexander Nosovich – Russia, Joschka Fröschner – Germany, Simon Charny, PhD. – Russia, Inna Shupak – Moldova.



Valery Engel, Ph.D., Dr Victor Shnirelman, Ph.D. – Russia, Michael Bugakov, Ph.D. – Lithuania, Alexander Kuzmin – Latvia, Alexander Nosovich – Russia, Joschka Fröschner – Germany, Simon Charny, Ph.D. – Russia, Inna Shupak – Moldova.



Dr. Miriam Bistrovic, Dr. Juliane Wetzel, Dr. Marija Vulesica, Joachim Krauss, Aleksandr Kuzmin (Latvia), Dr. Andrea Rudorff, Simon Charny, Dr. Victor Shnirelman, Valery Engel (CSc), Dr. Emilia Lazarova-Gencheva.


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