Internet platform for studying Xenophobia, Radicalism and Problems of Intercultural communication.

Incitement of Hatred

Incitement of Hatred League of Defense of England on the march.

Most of these calls were aimed against the Muslim community. On February 26, 2014, Legoland Windsor has been forced to cancel a Muslim fun-day at their premises after far-right groups had threatened members of staff and had pledged to picket the event.

Crisis in Gaza resulted in calls against Jewish people and Israel. On the 26th of July, a pro- Palestinian demonstration was held in central London, during which a man carried a placard which read: “Save Gaza! Hitler you were right!”

Statements against Eastern Europeans were also noted. On March 6, a wall in Belfast displayed a swastika and writing “Poles, Get Out!” Generally the neo-Nazi literature and music cannot be considered very common or popular in the United Kingdom.

Nevertheless, the biggest neo-Nazi chain of promoters called “Blood & Honour”, which was founded in 1987 and named after the Hitlerjugend’s motto “Blut und Ehre”, is still active in the country. These promoters organise concerts and distribute recordings of bands belonging to the “RAC” genre – “Rock against Communism”. The Blood & Honour chain of promoters is supported worldwide by the bands that share neo-Nazi and nationalistic views.

The main theme explored in the RAC music is usually racial war, cities as war arenas against foes, bravery, and the final victory of the white man. An entire series of bands play this style of music in UK. Some examples would be English Rose, Celtic Warrior, Chingford Attack, Legion of St. George, White Law, etc.

In addition to that, Britain was also visited by such foreign neo-Nazi rock-bands as “Cirhoza 88” from Czech Republic, Greek band “Der Stürmer”, who are directly linked to the Golden Dawn Party, as well as “The Tattooed Motherfuckers”, “Short Cropped”, “Heroes”, “Baker’s Dozen”, “Kombatants”, “No Quarter”, “Pittbullfarm”, “Pressure 28”, and “Citizen Keyne”, all well-known in the European neo-Nazi communities.

English Defence League held a number of demonstrations across the country in 2014: Slough (February 1, 150 people ), Sunderland (March 29 ), Rotherham (May 10, 400 people ), Newcastle (18 May, 400 people ), Colchester (May 22, 30 people ), Stevenage (June 7, 300 people ), Middlesbrough (June 29, 300 people ), Bolton (July 7, 100 people ), Bournemouth (August 9, 350 people ), Batley (August 9, 300 people ), London (20 September, 400 people ), Portsmouth (11 October, 40 people ), Birmingham (11 October, 300 people ), Luton (November 22, 300 people ). The largest action was held on September 13 in Rotherham, dedicated to “sexual crimes” of Muslims, gathering about 1000 people. Such demonstrations are used to mobilise supporters.

On January 18, 2014, PAP held a demonstration against the Muslim Brotherhood in London, gathering 25 people. In July, the organisation announced a “national tour” across the country – several demonstrations in Glasgow, Newcastle, Sheffield and Wigan, accompanied by clashes with antifascists. On November 1, PAP held a National Action Day in Rochester, gathering 80 people.,/p>

On June 14 and August 30, 2014, nationalists from the South-Eastern Alliance held a demonstration in Cricklewood, directed against Muslims. Scottish Defence League held demonstrations in Berwick and Edinburgh, gathering about 40-50 supporters.

On April 5, a White March was held in Swansea, organised by the National Front.

On October 4, National Front held a demonstration in Newcastle, directed against Islam.

On January 18, 2015, an anti-Muslim demonstration was held in Lincoln by Western England Patriots. They threatened antifascists taking part in a counter-demonstration. On January 26, Jobbik party supporters held a small rally in London.

On March 15, English Volunteer Groups held a demonstration in London, gathering 100 people.

Since 2008, nationalists from March for England have been holding St. George marches in Brighton on April 27th every year.

On June 17, 2014, a racist demonstration was held in Belfast.

On July 26, about 40 members of the Popular Front tried to protest against the "Asian invasion" in Gloucester. On October 25, Welsh Alliance held a demonstration in Cardiff.

On August 9 and 29, 2014, British, Greek and Polish nationalists organised a rally at the Greek Embassy in London to support the Golden Dawn party. All of these events received minimal support of the local population. In a number of cases, demonstrators had to find support in other regions.

A number of anti-Semitic demonstrations were caused by Israeli operations in Gaza. Pro-Palestinian rallies were held in London on July 19, 26 and August 9, 2014. The first one gathered 15 000 people. Daily anti-Israeli rallies were held in Manchester since July 23.

In 2015-2016 Right wing nationalist parties have actively used growing radical sentiments in the country that followed the refugee crisis and numerous terrorist attacks. Nigel Farage’s UKIP party was particularly successful, gaining significant results in the general elections after the series of attacks in France. Interestingly, Nigel Farage turned to the Jewish community, despite being accused of anti-Semitic statements earlier. However, this is not uncommon for European extreme right. Many similar parties across the continent have turned more “pro” Jewish, pro women and pro LGBT in order to unite more people against a single foe.

Meanwhile, Islamist radicals have used these right-wing sentiments to their advantage. One of the of the leaders of Hizb-ut-Tahrir, Ibtihal Bsis, claimed that Islam is basically “outlawed” in Britain and that there is a war on Islam in the country. She encouraged Western Muslims to “pick a side”.

Voluntary assimilation of Muslims in Europe is becoming less common, while, Al-Muhajiroun, the organisation that professes Islamist extremism, continues being active, despite being banned in the UK. Today it is known that more than 100 people associated with the group were convicted by the British court for crimes related to terrorism. Individual experts, such as Raffaello Pantucci, argue that 50% of all terrorist attacks planned and carried out in the UK were committed by people recruited by this organisation.

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