Internet platform for studying Xenophobia, Radicalism and Problems of Intercultural communication.

Treatment of Minorities

Treatment of Minorities Ethnic composition of the Russian Federation. 80.90% of the country's population identify themselves with the Russian ethnos.

In 2015, judging by the opinion polls, the general decrease in xenophobia that began in 2014 on the wave of the Crimean syndrome continued.According to a survey conducted on August 7-10, 2015 by the Levada Centre, 25% believed that hate clashes were possible in Russia (this point reached a peak in 2013, when 62% of respondents expressed this view against the backdrop of a wave of anti-migrant propaganda); 14% believed that such clashes are possible in their hometown (here the peak was passed in January 2011, when 30% of respondents expressed this opinion, in 2013 - 25%).

Answering the question whether to restrict the residence of certain peoples in the Russian Federation, 29% of the respondents considered it necessary to do this for people from the Caucasus (in 2014 39% thought it, in 2013 - 54%), also 29% - natives of Central Asia (29 and 45%), 24% Chinese (33 and 45%), 22% Roma (23 and 32%) and Vietnamese (27 and 32%), and 7% Jews (8% each). Ukrainophobia has grown significantly - 14% (8% and 5%, respectively) have come to be considered “undesirable” Ukrainians. 15% thought it necessary to limit the residence of all nations except Russian (this figure remained at about the same level in previous years).

At the same time, 25% believed that no restrictions should be imposed (in 2014, there were 21%, in 2013 - 11%). Hostility to themselves from other nationalities was felt “often” and “very often” by 16%, rarely by 31%, and never felt - by 51% (these figures, given the statistical error, remained practically low for the last few years. 13% often felt hostile towards other nationalities, rarely 38%, and almost never 46%, while positive feelings for “others” was expressed by 8% (taking into account the statistical error, this indicator remains unchanged for the last decade), negative -

37% (the indicator was immutable the last decade, with the exception of a sharp rise in 2013 to 62%).

It can be noted that the slogan “Russia for Russians” has ceased to be a means of attracting new supporters to nationalists. The number of people who believe that it is “long overdue” in 2015 was 16%; another 37% thought it possible to implement it “within reasonable limits”. 25% considered this slogan “true fascism “. On the wave of the Crimean syndrome, the slogan “Stop feeding the Caucasus” no longer works: 52% support it in different degrees, while in 2013 it was 71%.

Similar figures are also shown by a poll conducted by the All-Russia Public Opinion Research Centre (VTsIOM), whose data was published on September 24. 8% of Russians (11 million people) experienced harassment on a national basis, and 25 percent of Russians noted contradictions in their city, conflicts between local residents and visitors of other nationalities.

There was a decrease in migrant phobia, although its level still remains high. According to the above-mentioned survey of the Levada Centre, 68% of respondents believed that it was necessary to try to limit the influx of visitors. On the other hand, the opinion on what to do with migrants who found themselves in the Russian Federation was split in half, 41% spoke in favour of legalizing them and helping them get a job and assimilate in Russia (in 2011-2014 this view was supported by 15-20%), and 43% advocate deportation (in 2011-2014 the number of adherents of this view ranged from 57 to 73%).Migrantophobic slogans were heard at the official trade union demonstration in Moscow on May 1, 2015.

According to the researchers, migrantophobia is fed by communication problems between local residents and immigrants from other regions. The more migrants integrate into the new social structures for them, the more it irritates the local population. However, at the same time, this problem gradually fades into the background in the minds of Russians. According to polls conducted by the All-Russia Public Opinion Research Centre published on February 17 and March 31, 2015, only 1% of respondents considered migration policy to be the most urgent problem on a national scale. The poll of the Levada Centre, which was published on March 16, gave 9% as the number of people for whom the “influx of migrants” was the most acute problem in life.

Unfortunately, migrant-phobic sentiments are often fed by the media. For example, on January 8, an article by A. Grishin appeared in Komsomolskaya Pravda, in which he stated that the French authorities allegedly “encourage the growing impudence of migrants” in every possible way, and the demonstration of solidarity with cartoonists who died in Paris - the desire to “split the Russian society, form and widen the fissure between Orthodox and Muslims, try to raise supporters of Islam to protest, and moderate Muslims to push into the arms of radical Islamists.

Polls record Islamophobic sentiment in society. However, compared to other European countries, the level of Islamophobia in Russia in 2015 was at one of the lowest levels - 23% (18% in 2014). Below figures only in Ukraine - 19%. For comparison: in Hungary it is 72%, followed by Italy - 69% (61% in 2014), then Poland - 66% (56% in 2014), Greece - 65%, Netherlands - 35% Germany - 29% (24%), France - 29% (24%), Great Britain - 28%. According to a poll published by the Public Opinion Foundation (FOM) on April 16, slightly less than a quarter of respondents named the role of Islam in the history of Russia positive, a little more than a quarter - negative. It is believed that in modern Russia this religion plays a positive role, a quarter of Russians, a third estimate it as negative. Opinions about the role of Islam in the world are more polarized: 20% positive versus 40% negative views.

Levels of homophobia are high in the Russian society. According to a survey conducted by the Levada Centre on March 27-30, 2015, 37% of Russians believe that homosexuality is a disease that must be treated, 13% considered homosexuality to be a result of seduction, 25% - a consequence of debauchery, and only 11% believed that this is the sexual orientation given birth. 18% believed that LGBT people should be prosecuted, 37% - treated. Only 25% believed that LGBT people should “leave alone” and only 7% believed that they needed “to help them live worthily”. More than two-thirds of respondents (65%) are dominated by negative feelings towards LGBT people - disgust and fear (24%), irritation (22%), vigilance (19%). Every fourth responds to homosexuals and lesbians “calmly, without much emotion.” Only 3% of Russians fit the notion of “gay-friends”; belong to the representatives of the LBGT community in a friendly manner, which does not go beyond a statistical error and cannot be taken seriously.

The ratio of those who approve and disapprove of the relationship between people of the same sex in the whole country now stands at 1: 3 (19% vs. 58%). Only 7% of the population supports the same-sex relationship. For most of the respondents (84%) same-sex marriages in Russia are unacceptable. Only 21-30% of respondents do not feel any discomfort from the physical presence of a number of representatives of the LGBT community: 29% say that they would not cause negative emotions to live near a pair of gays / lesbians; 27% would work “without emotion” with a colleague with non-traditional sexual orientation; 22% would not feel discomfort, dealing with such a friend. Gay parades and kisses, hugs in the public are still perceived as the most unacceptable and propaganda for homosexuality (in the opinion of 87% and 85% respectively).

The number of Russians who definitely supports the adopted law on the prohibition of the so-called propaganda of homosexuality, has grown from 52% in 2013 to 63% in 2015, and 77% of respondents currently endorse the “ban on propaganda for homosexuality” According to a survey conducted by the Levada Centre on September 18-21, answering the question about what to do with LGBT people, 21% offered to liquidate them, 37% to isolate them from society, and only 7% to help.

According to a poll conducted by the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Centre (VTsIOM), the results of which were published on July 10, 35% of Russians considered homosexuality a disease, another 20% perceive them as extremely dangerous people and even advise to isolate them from society (since 2004 this share has grown more than 1.5 times - from 12%). Tolerance in this issue is shown by 22% of respondents - they do not believe that people should somehow differentiate according to their sexual preferences. 80% opposed the possibility of gay marriage. Only 3% of the survey participants agreed that homosexuals should be given the right to create a full-fledged family, including adopting children. Another 3% offered to allow them to marry, but without the possibility of adoption. 12% believed that the authorities should protect homosexuals from discrimination, but do not allow them to enter into a marriage and take care of children. 32% suggested not paying special attention to representatives of non-traditional sexual orientation, and they did not show their preferences too demonstratively. A more intransigent position was held by 41% of respondents - according to them, homosexuals must be persecuted.

According to the sociological service Levada-Center, the list of ethnic groups that Russians are prejudiced against is topped by Roma. In the case of Roma, 1% in 2018 and 2-3% in 2019-2020 were willing to accept them as family members (1% in 2010), 1-2% as friends (1% in 2010), 4-5% as neighbors (3% in 2010), but as co-workers they were tolerated by 1-2% (2% in 2010), As residents of Russia - 23% in 2018, 29% in 2019 and 23% in 2020 (24% in 2010), 16-19% would only let Roma come to Russia temporarily (19% in 2010), 41-44% were ready not to let them into Russia (3% in 2010).

Second place went to natives of Central Asia. 2% in 2018 and 3-4% in 2019-2020 were ready to accept them as family members (1% in 2010), 3-4% - as friends (1% in 2010), 6-7% - as neighbors (4% in 2010), But as colleagues they were tolerated 3-5% ( in 2010 - 4%), as residents of Russia - 19% in 2018, 22% in 2019 and 18% in 2020 (18% in 2010), 30% in 2018-2019 and 33% in 2020 would only temporarily let Central Asians to Russia (29% in 2010), 30% in 2018, 29% in 2019 and 26% in 2020 were ready not to let them into Russia (29% in 2010).

Third on the list were Africans. 1% in 2018 and 2-3% in 2019-2020 were ready to accept them as family members (1% in 2010), 3-5% - as friends (1% in 2010), 5-6% - as neighbors (5% in 2010), but 2-4% were ready to tolerate them as colleagues (5% in 2010), As residents of Russia - 17%-18% (15% in 2010), 27% in 2018 and 31% in 2019-2020 would only let Africans to Russia temporarily (29% in 2010), 33% in 2018, 30% in 2019 and 28% in 2020 were ready not to let them into Russia (26% in 2010).

They were followed by the Chinese. 2% in 2018 and 4-5% in 2019-2020 were ready to accept them as family members (1% in 2010), 5-6% - as friends (1% in 2010), 8-9% - as neighbors (5% in 2010), but as colleagues 4-7% were ready to tolerate them (5% in 2010), As residents of Russia - 32% in 2018, 28% in 2019 and 25% in 2020 (in 2010 - 27%), 27-30% would only let the Chinese to Russia temporarily (in 2010 - 30%), 27% in 2018, 25% in 2019 and 22% in 2020 were ready not to let them into Russia (in 2010 - 32%).

It is interesting to see Chechens, who have held the top spot on the list for quite a long time, move to fifth place. According to the survey, 2-4% were ready to accept them as family members (1% in 2010), 4-5% as friends (1% in 2010), 7-8% as neighbors (4% in 2010), but 2-4% were ready to tolerate them as colleagues (3% in 2010), 31-34% as residents of Russia (22% in 2010) (these people don't accept Chechnya as part of Russia; 16-19% would only let Chechens come to Russia temporarily (19% in 2010); 26-27% were not willing to let them come to Russia (38% in 2010).

In the case of Ukrainians, 6% in 2018 and 11% in 2019-2020 were ready to accept them as family members (5% in 2010), 6-8% - as friends (4% in 2010), 8-11% - as neighbors (11% in 2010), but 3-5% were ready to tolerate them as colleagues (6% in 2010), As residents of Russia - 29% in 2018, 28% in 2019 and 23% in 2020 (31% in 2010), 20-22% would only let Ukrainians to Russia temporarily (20% in 2010), 22% in 2018, 16% in 2019 and 19% in 2020 were not willing to let them into Russia (13% in 2010).

At the last place in the list of "hated peoples" were Jews, where we could observe a slight improvement compared to 2010, but still a significant dip compared to the years of the "Crimean consensus" . 6% in 2018 and 12-13% in 2019-2020 were ready to accept Jews as family members (2% in 2010), 8-10% as friends (3% in 2010), 12-13% as neighbors (8% in 2010), but as work colleagues 6-7% were ready to tolerate them (9% in 2010), As residents of Russia - 20% in 2018, 19% in 2019 and 16% in 2020 (in 2010 - 27%), 11-14% would only let Jews to Russia temporarily (in 2010 - 17%), 13% were ready not to let them into Russia (in 2010 - 17%, while in 2016-2017 this figure decreased to 8% and even 4%).

In addition, one-fifth of Russians (19% in 2018 and 2020, and 23% in 2019) stated that they support the slogan "Russia for Russians" and that it is "high time to implement it," although in the second half of the 2010s support for this slogan fell to 10% at times; a little more -27-30% - are negative about this slogan, 30-32% believe that it should be implemented "within reasonable limits." The same survey demonstrated a high level of migrant-phobia: 67% of the respondents in 2018 and 72-73% in 2019-2020 were in favor of restricting the arrival of labor migrants, and 14 9% and 11% respectively believed that the authorities should encourage the influx of migrants.

According to another survey conducted in May-June 2019 among young people, 11% of respondents said they were discriminated against because of their ethnic origin (2% - "often" and 9% "rarely"), 10% - because of religion (2% - "often" and 8% "rarely"), 6% - because of language (2% - "often" and 4% "rarely"), 3% - because of sexual orientation (1% - "often" and 2% "rarely"). At the same time there were many more among "non-Russians" respondents who experienced discrimination than among "Russians" - 8% of "Russians" (1% of them often), and 22% of "non-Russians" (3% of them often) experienced discrimination because of their ethnicity. "Non-Russians" were discriminated against more often because of the language they speak (13% vs. 4%) and religion (16% vs. 8%) .

A February 2020 Levada Center poll showed a high level of homophobia in the country. 18 percent supported the proposal to "eliminate" LGBT people, while another 32 percent supported the "isolate them from society" option. The same number of people (32%) voted for the "leave them to themselves" option, and 13% even offered to help LGBT people. According to the Levada Center, this kind of ratio has remained unchanged since the late 2000s. (Similar numbers were provided by an April 2019 poll specifically dedicated to LGBT people, which showed that 56 percent of respondents had a negative attitude toward them, while 53 percent believed that they should not enjoy the same rights as other citizens.) The same poll also revealed a high level of "sectophobia" - 21 percent of respondents supported the "liquidation" option for "sectarians," while 44 percent supported the "isolation from society" option. Over the last decade the number of supporters of the "liquidate" option fell from 26% in 2008, while the number of those who wanted to "isolate" "sectarians" rose from 27% to 41%.

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